Bone is a living, growing tissue and mostly made up of collagen (a protein that provides a soft framework) and calcium phosphate (a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework)
This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone both flexible and strong, which in turn helps bone to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the body calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.
Bones play many important roles in the body like providing structure, protecting organs, anchoring muscles and storing calcium.
Throughout one’s lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added to the skeleton (formation). During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation outpaces resorption until peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) is reached around age 30. After that time, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation.
Osteoporosis or “porous bones” or “holey bones” is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased risk of fractures of the hip, spine, and wrist.
There are around 40 million osteoporosis patients in India.
Different types of bone problems are as follows:
A bone density test is the only test which diagnose osteoporosis, as it helps to estimate the density of your bones. It is also called as bone mass measurement test which helps doctor to make recommendation to help you protect your bone. A bone density test will tell you normal bone density, low bone density (osteopenia) or osteoporosis. Lower bone density increases the risk of breaking a bone.
BMD, bone mineral density is reflecting the strength of bone and represents the calcium content. Bone mass/ density always changes throughout your life. You start build up bone mass in young age and you will start losing it as you get older. .Bone mass is usually expressed in a scores. A Z-score of anything between -1 and 1 is normal, a Z-score between -1 and -2.5 means you have low bone mineral density and a Z-score of -2.5 or lower means you have osteoporosis.
To diagnose osteoporosis, bone mass density (BMD) test needs to perform. It is most commonly performed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA or DEXA) or bone densitometry.
Apart from these, hormonal deficient test is required to perform because low bone mass and an increased risk of developing the disease, is menopausal or due to hormone-deficiency in women. Other diagnostic imaging tests that may be done to measure BMD and to detect osteoporosis include CT scans (computerized tomography), X-rays, and ultrasounds.