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Diabetes (High Blood Sugar) Test


Diabetes (High blood sugar) is a chronic condition associated with high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood (38.0 C)

Absence or insufficient production of glucose, or an inability of the body to properly use glucose causes diabetes

Average age of onset diabetes is 45 years, but it has become diagnose in young population from 20 to 40 years also

According to WHO, India tops the list of countries with highest number of diabetics which is 31.7 million and It is expected to rise by more than 100% in the year 2030 to account to a whopping 79.4 million

Types of diabetes based on causes

Diabetes can be classified in to three categories, depending on cause of Diabetes

  • Type 1 Diabetes (T1D): The body stops producing glucose or produces too little glucose to regulate blood glucose level. It is referred as juvenile-onset diabetes as it typically diagnosed during childhood and adolescence
  • Type 2 Diabetes (T2D): Although the pancreas still secretes glucose, People with glucose resistance develop type 2 diabetes when they fail to secrete enough glucose to cope with their body's demands. Type 2 diabetes is typically diagnoses during adulthood, usually after age of 45 years
  • Gestational diabetes (GDM): It’s a form of diabetes that occurs during the second half of pregnancy.

Common symptom of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:

  • Fatigue and Feeling constantly tired
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Excessive thirst (polydipsia)
  • Excessive urination (polyuria)
  • Excessive eating (polyphagia)
  • Poor wound healing
  • Infections- frequent yeast infections of the genitals, dental infections, skin infections, and frequent urinary tract infections
  • Altered Mental status-Agitation, unexplained irritability, inattention, extreme lethargy, or confusion
  • Blurry Vision
  • Damage to the retina from diabetes is leading cause of blindness
  • Damage Kidneys, Kidney failure
  • Damage of central nervous system
  • Infections
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Foot Infection

As diabetes has a strong genetic link, it is difficult to prevent, but type 2 diabetes can be prevented in some cases

    • Control weight to normal or near normal levels by proper diet
    • Go for regular exercise
    • Avoid alcohol
    • Quit smoking
    • Take proper medication of High Blood Pressure and high cholesterol
    • Keep control on sugar intake


  • Diabetes is diagnosed with its symptoms with certain tests. A history including information about the patient's symptoms, risk factors for diabetes, past medical problems, current medications, allergies to medications, family history of diabetes, or other medical problems such as high cholesterol or heart disease, and personal habits and lifestyle would be considered before confirming tests
  • Fasting Blood Sugar: The patient will be asked to eat or drink nothing for eight hours before having blood drawn (usually first thing in the morning). If the blood glucose level is greater than or equal to 126 mg/dL at any age, they probably have diabetes
  • Post Prandial Glucose Test: In this test Glucose is measured in the blood particularly after a meal. If the blood glucose rises over or equal to 200 mg/dL, the patient has diabetes
  • The hemoglobin A1c test is the best measurement of blood sugar control in people known to have diabetes. The normal value is under 6%. Hemoglobin A1c levels of 7% or less indicate good glucose control. A result of 8% or higher indicates that blood sugar levels are too high

Diabetes(High Blood Sugar)

i. What are the early signs of diabetes?+
ii. Can diabetes be tested at home? Are there any risks associated with home testing?+
iii. What is the normal range for blood sugar?+
iv. Can diabetes be properly tested with single blood test?+
v. What are the signs of sudden fluctuation of my sugar level? What should be immediate action?+