Coagulation disorder is a condition in which the body’s ability to clot the blood is impaired. This condition can cause prolonged or excessive bleeding, which may occur spontaneously or following an injury and dental procedures.
It can be caused by reduced levels or absence of blood clotting factors. It can also occur as a result of dysfunction or reduced levels of platelets (small disk-shaped bodies in the bloodstream that aid in the clotting process).
Major causes of coagulation disorders are:
It is a deficiency or defect of von Willebrand factor (vWF) which is an important carrier of clotting factor VIII and helps platelets adhere to the site of the blood vessel damage. The different types of von Willebrand disease include:
Type 1: where there is a partial deficiency of von Willebrand factor
Type 2: where there is a defect in von Willebrand factor
Type 3: where there is an almost complete deficiency of von Willebran factor
It is a deficiency of one of the clotting factors involved in the coagulation cascade that eventually leads to the formation of a blood clot. Hemophilia A and B mainly affects males. There are three different types:
Hemophilia A: where there is a deficiency in factor VII
Hemophilia B: where there is a deficiency in factor IX
Hemophilia C: where there is a deficiency in factor XI
It is due to a deficiency of circulating platelets, the cell particles that are essential for the formation of a platelet plug and contribute to blood clotting
Disorders of the coagulation can either be acquired after birth or they can be hereditary and passed down from the parents to the child.
Risk factors associated with developing a coagulation disorder include:
Diagnosis of coagulation disorders usually begins with a physical exam and a review of the patient's medical history and symptoms. A positive diagnosis of the condition is based on the patient's symptoms as well as the findings of a blood test. Other diagnostic tools may be used to better understand the patient's condition.
A blood test is the only way to positively diagnose a coagulation disorder. The blood sample will be examined under a microscope to determine the following information:
Other diagnostic tools may include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) angiography, which can be used to observe the condition and the area affected by disorder.
Coagulation disorders are disruptions in the body's ability to control blood clotting, an essential function of the body designed to prevent blood loss. The most commonly known coagulation disorder is hemophilia, a condition in which a critical component of blood coagulation is missing, causing individuals to bleed for long periods of time before clotting occurs.
It can be caused by reduced levels or absence of blood-clotting proteins. Factors like genetic disorders such as hemophilia and von Willebrand's disease, can cause a reduction in clotting factors.
It can be treated with factor replacement therapy which involves injecting clotting factor concentrates into the bloodstream. These injections can prevent or control excessive bleeding. It can also be treated by frozen plasma transfusions if there is need of more clotting factors.