Thyroid glands are gland located in the front of the neck which synthesizes thyroid hormone which controls various metabolic pathways.

When this hormone exceeds their limit of secretion they cause hyperthyroidism while if the hormones get down-regulated it may cause hypothyroidism, both having a massive impact on the pregnancy.
 
1. Role of thyroid hormone in pregnancy:

Thyroid hormone takes care of growth and development of the fetus. It is researched that during the trimester the baby gets the supply of thyroid hormones. During the pregnancy, the hCG and estrogen cause an increase in the level of the thyroid which results in thyroid enlargement.

Any problem in the thyroid hormone or gland may result in neurological problems and postpartum thyroiditis in the newly born baby.

2. Causes of hyperthyroidism:

Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy may be a result of Graves’s disease, where the immune system is misguided to consider the thyroid cell as foreign. The antibodies produced are called the thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin.

Hyperthyroidism may be due to a rare incidence of hyperemesis gravidarum which accompanies with weight loss, vomiting, and nausea.

3. Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism:

Once a woman is producing a high amount of thyroid hormone, the subject feels increased heartbeats, tiredness, and weight loss. It can result in the incidence of fatal events like preeclampsia, congestive failure of heart, premature birth or even miscarriage.

4. Causes of hypothyroidism:

Hypothyroidism in pregnancy is mainly caused by the Hashimoto's disease which is an autoimmune disorder. The cells of the thyroid gland are affected to downregulate the hormone levels.

5. Symptoms of Hypothyroidism:

If the hypothyroidism is left untreated it may result in the baby may be underweight, preeclampsia, stillbirth, anemia, miscarriage or a rare incidence of congestive failure of the heart.

Thus it is very important to test for the thyroid abnormality during pregnancy to narrow down any future complications.

Suggested Diagnosis and Tests for Thyroid Disorders

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